The Internet Protocol (IP) provides for transmitting blocks of data called datagrams from sources to destinations, where sources and destinations are hosts identified by fixed length addresses. The internet protocol also provides for fragmentation and reassembly of long datagrams, if necessary, for transmission through "small packet" networks.
An IP (Internet Protocol) address is 32 bit, or four byte, address assigned to a specific machine that enables it to utilize the TCP/IP transport layer.
Because the highest value a Byte can be is 255 and the lowest is 0, this is the range of any "octet". Because an IP address contains four bytes, there are four octets in an ip address. The '0' value is reserved for the network, and the '255' value is reserved for what is called a broadcast. That means that IP addresses will typically not end in 0 or 255, because those numbers are reserved for other things.
Reserved Address Space & RFC 3330
192.168.0.0/16 - This is reserved in RFC 1918 for the local network. If you come across this type of IP address, it is not a machine out there on the internet, but one likely in your own house or another computer at the coffee shop you're hanging out in.
172.16.0.0/12 - This is reserved in RFC 1918 for the same as above
10.0.0.0/8 - Same as above
169.254.0.0/16 - This is a zeroconfig link-local address. Computers will automatically use an address in this block when they are set to use DHCP, yet there is no DHCP server on the network. This is defined in RFC 3927.
Obtaining Your IP Address
ip addr show
On windows, you can type: